Gasparyan I.N., Levshin A.G., Golubev I.G., Shchigolev S.V., Gasparyan Sh.V.
The article analyzes the world market of agricultural machinery, its features of improvement due to the complication of designs and the active introduction of precision farming technologies. The issues of changing the Russian fleet of agricultural machinery are considered, which has been declining for a long time in all major types of equipment. The number of tractors in the Russian fleet decreased by 18.4%, combines by 16.2%, including potato harvesters. The reduction of agricultural machinery available in the domestic fleet naturally reduces the availability of agricultural machinery in terms of 1000 ha of arable land. The mechanized technologies of potato cultivation in the Russian Federation and the special equipment required for this are considered in more detail, since when choosing a technology, it is necessary to take into account the entire system of machines from planting to harvesting. The characteristics of the main mechanized technologies of potato cultivation common in Russia is given: traditional, Dutch, ridge-ribbon, Grimme, comb technologies. Information is provided on the technological processes of planting and harvesting, which account for a significant part of the operating and labor costs. To implement these technological processes, it is required to use special equipment, which varies greatly in performance and application characteristics in various climatic conditions and production volumes. As an example of the use of a complex of such equipment, the production system in a large-scale farm, CJSC Ozery (Moscow region), is described. The need for equipment for potato growing remains high and it is necessary to develop domestic mechanical engineering, taking into account the world achievements in this area.
Key words: potato growing, special machinery, potato planter, potato harvester
Gasparyan I.N., D.Sci. (Agr.), professor of the Department “Operation of the machine and tractor fleet and high technologies in crop production”, Russian State Agrarian University – Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy. E-mail: email@example.com. Phone: +7 (926) 558-15-39.
Levshin A.G., D.Sci. (Techn.), professor, Head of the Department “Operation of the machine and tractor fleet and high technologies in crop production” Russian State Agrarian University – Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Phone: +7 (926) 014-37-53.
Golubev I.G., D.Sci. (Techn.), professor, Head of Department, chief research fellow of the Department of Scientific and Information Support for Innovative Development of Agro-Industrial Complex of the Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution «Rosinforagrotec». E-mail: email@example.com. Phone: +7 (926) 365-12-61.
Shchigolev S.V., Cand. Sci. (Techn.), associate professor of the Department of Agricultural Machines Russian State Agrarian University – Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Phone: +7 (903) 112-59-22.
Gasparyan Sh.V., Cand. Sci. (Agr.), associate professor of the Department of Technologies for Storage and Processing of Fruit and Vegetable and Plant Products, Russian State Agrarian University – Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy. E-mail: email@example.com. Phone: +7 (926) 535-48-90.
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For citing: Technologies and machines for the production of potatoes. I.N. Gasparyan, A.G. Levshin, I.G. Golubev, S.V. Shchigolev, Sh.V. Gasparyan. Potato and vegetables. 2021 No9. Pp. 3-8. https://doi.org/10.25630/PAV.2021.65.12.001 (In Russ.).