Potatoes are in the fourth place among the main food crops in the world, and is one of the main food products of Russia. High impact of potato viral, bacterial, oomycete and fungal diseases has a serious threat to crop yield, leading to economic losses due to culling of seed potatoes and increase storage losses. In recent years, there has been an increase in the harmfulness of potato diseases associated with climatic changes, changes in the populations of pathogens, the change in cultivated potato varieties and other host plants. The effect of global warming is expected to be negative – elevated temperatures reduce the growth rate and accumulation of starch by tubers, cause physiological damage and increase susceptibility to pathogens, increase the pathogens and their vectors propagation rate. It is estimated that with the projected increase of global temperature, the potato yield at the existing areas across the World will fall by 2050 for about 14%, a significant proportion of these losses in Russia will be caused by new species and biotypes of potato pathogens. Estimated global warming effect proved that average temperature growth for each 1°C will elongate the necessary fungicide application period against Phytophthora infestance for 10-20 days depending to rains amount. Lack of protection will cause an additional yield loss of 2 t/ha for each degree of warming. There is a high risk of fungicide-resistant plant pathogens causing potato anthracnose, Rhizoctonia canker or black scurf, and silver scurf. Occurrence and harm of bacterial plant pathogens of potato is increasing and species prevalence is changing. Dickeya species became common potato pathogen in Russia at 2009, but since 2012 they there substituted by new Pectobacterium subspecies P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense; P. carotovorum subsp. odoriferum, and species P. parmentieri. Environmental factors underline and multiply the errors in agro-technique and plant protection of potato, which are too conservative to withstand the changes in content and life style of plant pathogens.
Keywords: plant pathogens, potato, climate.
A.N. Ignatov (author for correspondence), DSc, Director on research R&D Center “PhytoEngenering” and professor, Agro- technological Institute, Peoples ' friendship University of Russia.E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
J.S. Panycheva, postgraduate student, R&D Center "PhytoEngenering” and All-Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology.E-mail: email@example.com.
M.V. Voronina, PhD, research fellow, R&D Center "PhytoEngenering”.E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
D.M. Vasiliev, PhD, research fellow, R&D Center "PhytoEngenering”.E-mail: email@example.com
F. S-U. Dzhalilov, DSc, professor, head of Department of plant protection, Russian State Agrarian University – Moscow Agricultural Academy by K. A. Timiryazev.E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
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