Autko A.A., Volosyuk S.N.
The main agro-techniques of watermelon cultivation technology in Belarus are described, a complex of agricultural machines which allows to cultivate watermelon without using chemical plant protection products in the mode of greening agriculture is presented. Field research was carried out in 2015–2018 on the basis of JSC “Chernyany” Maloritskiy district of the Brest region. Research planning, setting up and conducting experiments were carried out according to generally accepted methods. It was established that when growing cassette seedlings of cassette, the location of seeds during sowing is important. When sowing watermelon seeds with a shift from the center of the cassette cell, one-sided development of the seedling root system occurs. When such seedlings are planted, the aerial part of the plant deviates from the central axis by 16,7–25,5°, the seedlings have a shifted center of gravity, which reduces the quality of its mechanized planting. After transplanting seedlings with a one-sidedly formed root system, its further development also occurs in one direction. When cultivating watermelon using such seedlings, a decrease in productivity by 11,8–12,2 t/ha was noted, which amounted to 28,2–29,2%. This occurs as a result of a decrease in the number of marketable fruits by 23,0%, a decrease in their average weight by 8,0–9,0%. It was revealed that when irrigation water was supplied to a 6 cm deep landing hole in a volume of 200 cm3 with simultaneous planting of seedlings, the volume of moistened soil was 449,8 cm3, which is 5.6 times more than when water was added to the furrow. With a dosed supply of water to the well in the amount of 250 and 300 cm3, the volume of soil moistening was 813,4 and 1416,1 cm3, respectively, which is 6,1 and 5,6 times more than when water was added to the furrows. This method of applying water when planting seedlings allows the most efficient use of irrigation water. The use of foliar top dressing with tank mixtures of the preparations Ecosil, Ecogum PK and Ecogum Complex when cultivating watermelon, contributes to an increase in the content of chlorophyll in the leaves by 16,5–22,0%, increase plant resistance to adverse environmental factors, increase productivity by 3,6–4,2 t/ha (10,2–11,9%), improving product quality with complete environmental safety.
Key words: watermelon, cultivation technology, foliar top dressing, seedlings, yielding capacity, weeds
Autko A.A., D. Sci. (Agr.), prof., chief research fellow of Department of mechanization of agricultural production of Education Department «Grodno state agrarian University». E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Volosyuk S.N., Cand. Sci. (Agr.), assoc. prof. of department of botany and ecology, Education Department «Brest State University named after A.S. Pushkin». E-mail: email@example.com
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For citing: Autko A.A., Volosiuk S.N. Agrobiological and technological basis of watermelon production in Belarus. Potato and vegetables. 2020. No8. Pp. 19–23 (In Russ.). https://doi.org/10.25630/PAV.2020.49.26.003