Effective vegetable growing on saline soils of the South of Russia

UDC 631.619

Butov I.S.

Salt resistance of cultivated plants is currently considered as a complex phyto-ecological problem, the solution of which depends on the efficiency of the use of saline and saline lands and obtaining guaranteed yields on them. Saline soils, although they occupy about 5% of the total soil area of the Russian Federation, however, play an extremely important role in irrigated agriculture, especially in the South of Russia. Salinization occurs due to changes in climatic conditions and human activities for land reclamation (the degree of natural drainage of the territory, filtration losses from irrigation channels, etc. Primary salinization occurs in areas of insufficient moisture, when constant evaporation from the soil surface of groundwater pulls salts to the surface. This creates problems for vegetable growers due to the fact that chlorides, sulfates and carbonates are toxic to plants. The majority of soils subject to salinization need ameliorative improvement with the use of saline phytomeliorative measures. Secondary salinization is another negative phenomenon caused by irrigation measures. It occurs as a result of excessive irrigation, which increases the level of saline groundwater, with which the soil solution, also saturated with salts, rises. when watering vegetables, it is important to apply new energy-saving technologies and use the best practices of foreign countries. In order to prevent secondary salinization, it is necessary to carry out annual priority emergency recovery and repair work to supply water to agricultural producers, as well as modernization of the existing hydro-reclamation complex. It is also important to introduce salt-resistant varieties and hybrids of vegetable crops into production. Such work is being carried out by the Poisk Agrofirm in the Rostov breeding and seed growing centre, where tomato hybrids F1 Ognevskij, F1 Persianovskij, F1 Pegas, sweet pepper variety Bolgarec and many others have already been created adapted to salting and hard water. Along with this, it is necessary to apply innovative technologies with state support, this is especially important for peasant farming and private households.

Key words: soil salinization, saline soils, secondary salinization, south of Russia, irrigation, vegetable growing

Butov I.S., Cand. Sci. (Agr.), editor-journalist, Potato and vegetables journal. E-mail: illiabutov@gmail.com

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For citing: Butov I.S. Effective vegetable growing on saline soils of the South of Russia. Potato and vegetables. 2022. No6. Pp. 16-17. https://doi.org/10.25630/PAV.2022.46.43.001 (In Russ.).


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