UDC 635.11: 631.527
Today, in large-scale commercial production of red beet, most of the area is occupied by European cultivars and hybrids of red beet. The marketability of foreign samples is higher than that of domestic ones, root crops are more even and, as a result, are more in demand among producers and consumers of products. However, these samples realize their potential with intensive growing technologies, they are less resistant to environmental stress factors. Foreign breeding companies do not carry out selection for keeping quality, since they do not need to store beets for a long time. In this regard, when creating competitive varieties and hybrids of red beet, it is important to have a new, comprehensively studied, source material. Experimental work was carried out at the All-Russian Research Institute of Vegetable Growing – a branch of the Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution Federal Research Vegetable Center for 2019–2021. The object of the study was 8 hybrids from polycross crossing of beetroot. The material for the research was the two-year primary data of field measurements and surveys. The F1 Kestrel hybrid zoned in the central region of the Russian Federation, common in commercial production, was used as a standard.The polycross nursery was founded in 2019. The resulting hybrid combinations were tested in 2020–2021. Field experiments were carried out in accordance with the guidelines for the study and maintenance of the world collection of root crops. Technology in the experimental plots is generally accepted for this zone. As a result of polycross crossing in the obtained hybrid combinations, a decrease in the share of the neck of the root crop in its diameter by 6.1–22.3% was revealed. The largest increase in dry matter content by 4.4% occurred in the sample Mt-2 × mixture, soluble sugar by 3.4% in number 709 × mixture. High competitive heterosis on the basis of the «share of rounded root crops' in polycross hybrids 800–1 × mixture (141.3%), 715 × mixture (135.0), Bx × mixture (115.0%). The highest marketability (over 90%) was noted for F1 800–1 × mixture, 800–2 × mixture, 715 × mixture, 728 × mixture.
Key words: red beet, source material, polycross, parental forms, competitive heterosis.
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