UDC 631.51: 631,82: 632.954
Borin A.A., Loshchinina A.E.
The research was carried out on sod-podzolic light loam soil. The purpose of the study is to identify the effectiveness of various tillage systems in combination with the use of fertilizers and herbicides for potatoes. Studied: traditional moldboard tillage system, flat plowing and combined (moldboard and flat plowing). Moldboard tillage system consisted of plowing of winter plow and spring plowing with subsequent pre-planting treatments. Flat plowing consisted of autumn cultivation without turnover of the soil with a KPG-2.2 flat-cutting cultivator and deep pre-planting cultivation in spring with a set of non-shaft cultivating tools. Combined tillage of the soil consisted of the use of moldboard and flat-cutting tools. Mineral fertilizers and Tornado herbicide were used against the background of various soil treatment systems. A more loose composition of the arable layer of the soil with deep pre-planting was established – density 1.20 g/cm3, hardness – 7.1 kg/cm2, and total porosity – 51.2%. According to the moldboard tillage system, compared to flat plowing, identified the best indicators of structural-aggregate composition – the content of agronomically valuable aggregates, water-resistant aggregates and the structural coefficient. Biological processes in the soil were more active during moldboard plowing: the decomposition of flaxen linen was 26.9%, and the production of carbon dioxide was 63.9 mg of CO2/m2h. A larger number of earthworms, as an indicator of the biological state of the soil, was found in the flat plowing system of soil treatment with deep pre-planting loosening – 43 pcs/m2. Accounting for potato weed showed a significant reduction in the number and weight of weeds for the options using the herbicide. The mass of weeds in the options with the use of fertilizers is more than 2 times more than the options without the herbicide. The use of the herbicide reduced the weediness of potato plantings by 37.5–71.4%. The best development of potato plants (a large number of stems and foliage) was noted by flat plowing. The complex application of fertilizers and herbicide, based on the background of various soil treatment systems, contributed to the formation of potato yields of 25.1–25.7 t/ ha. The largest increases were provided by fertilizers (2.8–2.9 t/ ha), less use of herbicide (0.6–1.5 t/ha) and tillage (0.3–0.4 t/ha).
Key words: potatoes, tillage, agrophysical properties, weediness, yield
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For citing: Borin A.A., Loshchinina A.E. Agricultural technologies and potato yield on sod-podzolic soils of the Upper Volga region. Potato and vegetables. 2020. No7. Pp. 15-19. https://doi.org/10.25630/PAV.2020.24.74.001 (In Russ.).