Evaluation of Fusarium fungus strains on affection of cucumber plants

UDC 635.63:631.526.32
https://doi.org/10.25630/PAV.2020.76.39.005

Chistyakova L.A., Sokolova L.M., Baklanova O.V., Egorova A.A.

https://doi.org/10.25630/PAV.2020.76.39.005en

The problem of affection of cucumber plants by root rot, which occurs in all types of cultivation facilities, considered in the article, is also fundamental in the selection and seed production of this crop. The cultivation of monoculture leads to accumulation and increase of infectious soil load. The purpose of the research work is to find sources of resistance and evaluate the breeding and line cucumber material for creating heterosis hybrids with resistance to Fusarium wilt (root rot). The research was carried out in ARRIVG - branch of FSBSI FSCVG in two crop rotations in polycarbonate unheated ground greenhouses during 2017-2019. Cultivation technology is generally accepted in agriculture. Laboratory tests were conducted in the immunity laboratory of the Selection and Seed Production Department of ARRIVG – branch of the Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution of Federal Scientific Vegetable Center. The research was carried out on inbreeding lines of a parthenocarpic cucumber; the express method «Putting cucumber seeds into spore suspension of the studied pathogens with subsequent planting out in acepticized sawdust» was tested. As a result of micro-coping, three strains of pure culture of Fusarium fungus are obtained, their description and method of obtaining of isolates are presented. The research work describes the preparation of a suspension of fungal spores for inoculation, the calculation of the number of spores, the preparation of acepticized sawdust, the process of seed disinfection; the favorable conditions for the progression and spread of the Fusarium fungus are stated. The scale of accounting for the degree of damage of the root system of cucumber seedlings in the phase of development of the first real leaf is presented. The scheme of the experiment had five options and included testing of new Fusarium fungus strains obtained from the affected cucumber root system in polycarbonate unheated ground greenhouses with monitoring the affection of cucumber plants with root rot in the second crop rotation; a strain of Fusarium oxysporum fungus was used as a standard, it was identified during the research by the staff of the All-Russian Research Institute of Vegeculture: A.V. Polyakov, A. A. Tkacheva, I. I. Tarasenkov and N. K. Birukova; as a control, sterile distilled water was used. The results of evaluation of affection of seedlings with Fusarium fungi in comparison with the standard and control are presented. It is concluded that monitoring of cucumber plants affected by root rot in ground greenhouses allows controlling the progress and spread of centers of infection, identifying and determining the pathogene aggressivity in specific production conditions, and as a result, taking timely measures to prevent epiphytoties. It is found that the standard has more aggressive physiological race of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum in comparison with obtained strains, since it completely overcomes the resistance of this genotype. The control of susceptibility to Fusarium oxysporum is determined.

Key words: cucumber, seeds, soil, greenhouse, root rot, fusarium, resistance, affection, temperature.

Chistyakova L.A., Cand. Sci (Agr.), senior research fellow of breeding of cucurbitaceous crops laboratory, ARRIVG – branch of FSBSI FSCVG, breeder of Poisk Agro Holding. E-mail: lyubov.chistyakova.83@mail.ru

Sokolova L.M., Cand. Sci (Agr.), senior research fellow of laboratory of breeding of root crops and onions, ARRIVG – branch of FSBSI FSCVG. E-mail: lsokolova74@mail.ru

Baklanova O.V., Cand. Sci (Agr.), leading research fellow of breeding of cucurbitaceous crops laboratory, ARRIVG – branch of FSBSI FSCVG, breeder of Poisk Agro Holding. E-mail: baklanova@semenasad.ru

Egorova A.A., Cand. Sci (Agr.), senior research fellow of Solanaceae crops Immunity and Breeding, ARRIVG – branch of FSBSI FSCVG. E-mail: egorova.ana@mail.ru

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For citing: Evaluation of Fusarium fungus strains on affection of cucumber plants. Chistyakova L.A., Sokolova L.M., Baklanova O.V., Egorova A.A. Potato and vegetables. 2020. No3. Pp. 32-36. https://doi.org/10.25630/PAV.2020.76.39.005 (In Russ.)

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