Optimization of onion production technology under annual growing in Non-Chernozem zone

UDC 635.13: 631.331

Irkov I.I., Ibragimbekov M.G., Zaplatkin A.N., Bagrov R.A.

Currently, the onion-turnip occupies the third place in the country in terms of cultivation area among vegetable crops with an average yield of 27.8 t/ha in 2019 year. The potential of modern sorts and hybrids is 100-120 t/ha. In the conditions of Non-Chernozem zone, the problem of onion disease with peronosporosis is the most urgent. The aim of the research is to optimize the elements of the onion – turnip production technology in an annual crop (pre-sowing seeds treatment with a mixture of rhizospheric associative bacteria, norms and terms of application of bacteria together with mineral fertilizers, norms and terms of application of fungicides), providing a yield of 70-80 t/ha on alluvial meadow soils of the Non-Chernozem zone. Field experiments were conducted at the ARRIVG experimental field according to standard methods. The soil of the site is alluvial meadow medium loamy. The humus content in the 0-20 cm layer is 3.0 — 3.2%, pH of the salt extract varies in the significant range of 5.0-6.5. The content of the sum of absorbed bases is 45.0 mg-eq. per 100 g of soil. The content of P2O5 is 22.0 mg per 100 grams of soil (according to Chirikov), potassium –15.2 mg (according to Maslova), total nitrogen-6.0 mg. In 2018 – 20 years it was found that: Treatment of seeds onion mixture of microbiological preparations associative rhizosphere bacteria Extrasol (strain Bacillus subtilis CH-13), Azotovit (strain Azotobakter chroococcum) and Fosfatovit (strain Bacillus mucilaginosus) doses, according to the manufacturer's recommendations, did not show a significant increase in germination tested options with respect to the control; Introduction of a mixture of rhizospheric associative bacteria preparations BisolbiSan (Bacillus subtilis strain CH-13), Azotovit (Azotobakter chroococcum strain) and Fosfatovit (Bacillus mucilaginosus strain) in total doses, l/ha: 20,0; 60,0; 70,0;80,0; 90,0; together with mineral fertilizing on the onion in an annual crop, it provides a significant (up to 20%) increase in yield. The terms and rates of application of drugs require further optimization. There is an increase in the immunity of plants against peronosporosis during non-root treatments with fungicides Ridomil Gold MC and Metaxil together with the bacterial preparation BisolbiSan (Bacillus subtilis strain CH-13) in 1% concentration of the working solution. Treatment intervals of 7-10 days with the fungicides Ridomil Gold MC and Revus Top (not registered on the onion) should be considered optimal against peronosporosis.

Key words: onion, technology, yield, peronosporosis, fertilizers, fungicides, rhizosphere bacteria

Irkov I.I., Cand. Sci. (Techn.), leading research fellow, All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Vegetable Growing – branch of FSBSI FSVC (ARRIVG– branch of FSBSI FSVC). E-mail: irkov@yandex.ru

Ibragimbekov M.G., Cand. Sci. (Agr.), research fellow of the Department of breeding and seed production, ARRIVG– branch of FSBSI FSVC, breeder of the Poisk Agrofirm. E-mail: vniioh@yandex.ru

Zaplatkin A.N., engineer-microbiologist, All-Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Microbiology, Head of the Development Department of Bisolbi Plus LLC. E-mail: pisemnet-@mail.ru

Bagrov R.A., Cand. Sci. (Agr.), senior research fellow of the Department of breeding and seed production, ARRIVG – branch of FSBSI FSVC. E-mail: romanus81@mail.ru

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For citing: Optimization of onion production technology under annual growing in Non-Chernozem zone. I.I. Irkov, M.G. Ibragimbekov, A.N. Zaplatkin, R.A. Bagrov. Potato and vegetables. 2021. No3. Pp. 25-28. https://doi.org/10.25630/PAV.2021.39.61.001 (In Russ.).

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