Features of potato cultivation at drip irrigation in the Lower Volga region

UDC 635.21:631.674

Novikov A.A.

The organization of effective industrial production of potatoes is one of the urgent tasks of the modern Russian agro-industrial complex. The purpose of the research is to optimize irrigation regimes and mineral nutrition when growing potatoes using drip irrigation. Studies of the influence of water availability and the nutrient regime of the soil on the growth, development, water consumption and yield of potatoes when watering with drip irrigation systems were carried out in 2008–2010 on light chestnut soils of the SEC Prestige of the Leninsky district of the Volgograd region. The soils of the subzone are characterized by low-power humus horizons of 0.15–0.25 m and a low humus content (1.6–2.3%) in the arable layer. The reaction of the soil solution is slightly alkaline (pH – 7.0–8.3). As part of a two-factor experiment, three irrigation regimes were studied with maintaining the pre-irrigation threshold of soil moisture at 80% NWC: option A1 – from the flowering phase, A2 – from the budding phase, A3 – from the germination phase, as well as four doses of mineral fertilizers calculated to obtain the yield level: N40P50K0 – 20 t/ha, N100P100K70 – 30 t/ha, N155P150K180 – 40 t/ha and N210P200K290 – 50 t/ha. To maintain the threshold of pre-watering soil moisture of 70% NWC in the period from planting to germination, 1–2 watering was required, in the period from planting to budding – from 1 to 3 watering, in the period from planting to the beginning of flowering – from 2 to 5 with a watering rate of 160 m3/ha. To maintain the threshold of pre-watering soil moisture of 80% NWC from the germination phase, it is necessary to carry out from 8 to 20 watering, from the beginning of the budding phase – from 7 to 18 watering, from the beginning of the flowering phase – from 6 to 15 watering of 130 m3/ha. The total water consumption of potatoes with a combination of factors that ensure the formation of a yield of up to 50 t/ha of mature tubers was 3470–3590 m3/ha of water. The vegetation period from planting to the beginning of the harvest phase increased from 91–97 days when applying fertilizers with a dose of N40P50K0 and maintaining a pre-watering soil moisture level of 80% NWC from the beginning of the flowering phase to 100–108 days when applying fertilizers with a dose of N210P200K290 and maintaining a pre-watering soil moisture level of 80% NWC from the germination phase.

Key words: potatoes, varieties, irrigation regimes, irrigation rates, water consumption, productivity

Novikov A.A., Cand. Sci. (Agr.), Deputy Director for Research and Innovative Development of the Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution All-Russian Research Institute of Irrigated Agriculture. E-mail: novikov@riagro.ru

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For citing: Novikov A.A. Features of potato cultivation at drip irrigation in the Lower Volga region. Potato and vegetables. 2021. No9. Pp. 28-32. https://doi.org/10.25630/PAV.2021.22.92.004 (In Russ.).


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