Devochkina N.L., Nurmetov R.Dzh., Dugunieva L.G., Rubtsov A.A.
The article presents the results of research and a comparative assessment of various methods of heat treatment of the substrate for the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. The method of heat treatment of the substrate is the most important element of the technology of preparation of the substrate for the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. The selected method of processing the mass of the substrate significantly depends on its quality and selectivity for the mycelium of the cultivated fungus. Along with this, the composition and properties of the substrate itself are important, which are determined by the selected source materials. Oyster mushroom as an object of production is quite attractive. This is confirmed by the fact that it is one of the leading mushroom crops in the global production of mushroom protein products. It has a number of useful medicinal properties, is valued more than champignon, which is the world's leading producer of cultivated mushrooms. Historically, the starting point in the development of technologies and technical progress in the field of industrial mushroom farming was the cultivation of champignons. For more than three hundred years of cultivation, champignon has been studied in sufficient detail, including its biological features and requirements for microclimate conditions. In parallel with this, technical science was also promoted, which began to use specialized cultivation facilities and equipment to create growing conditions, and substrate preparation technologies were developed. Oyster mushroom culture was not studied in such detail, so for its cultivation, simpler methods were used, which did not provide high economic efficiency of production. Methods of heat treatment of the substrate differ in their duration, temperature regime, output of high-quality, not infected with infectious beginnings of the substrate, and efficiency. Processing the steaming-plant has a duration of 2-3 days in the direct flow of vapor to the mass of the substrate with a temperature of 95-100°C, rapid cooling and maximum output of the substrate is 1.5-2.0 t, is not affected by infections 70-75%; in the tunnel is 4-5 days in steam in the flow of conditioned air passed through microbiological filters, at a temperature of +60-65°С and slow cooling of a mass of not less than 20 t, the maximum yield of pure infections of the substrate 90-95%; in the autoclave during the day at a temperature of 120°C saturated steam at a pressure of 1.1 atm, the volume of processing 5 t, of a substrate, the substrate output quality 100%.
Key words: oyster mushroom, heat treatment, technological process, substrate preparation, fruit bodies, fruiting, sterilization, autoclave, growing
Devochkina N.L., D. Sci. (Agr.), chief research fellow, department of greenhouse industry and mushroom cultivation, ARRIVG – branch of FSBSI FSVC. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Nurmetov R.Dzh., D. Sci. (Agr.), professor, chief research fellow, department of greenhouse industry and mushroom cultivation, ARRIVG – branch of FSBSI FSVC
Dugunieva L.G., junior research fellow, department of greenhouse industry and mushroom cultivation, ARRIVG – branch of FSBSI FSVC
Rubtsov A.A., Cand. Sci. (Agr.), head of Biruchekutskaya Vegetable Experimental Station – branch of FSBSI FSVC
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For citing: Comparative evaluation of methods of heat treatment of substrate for oyster mushroom cultivation. N.L. Devochkina, R.Dzh. Nurmetov, L.G. Dugunieva, A.A. Rubtsov. Potato and vegetables. 2020. No11. Pp. 20-22. https://doi.org/10.25630/PAV.2020.76.62.002 (In Russ.).